Available documents and literature have been grouped according to Country where this is appropriate. This allows the user to view documents where specific country contexts are referred to or referenced. For inclusion in this section a document either has a specific country focus or includes extensive commentary on the country in terms of analysis or the inclusion of a case study or example.
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No Title Author Year Brief Summary URL Link
1.Reintegrating Ex-Combatants in Post-Conflict SocietiesNilsson Anders: Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)2005Review of several DDR programs exploring three main challenges and issues (security, social tensions and marginalization) identifies lessons learned and best practices. Includes useful discussion and comparative analysis of issues related to national ownership and different types security and political environments in which DDR (or components of it) might be implemented. Includes examples drawn from Algeria, Chad, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea Bissau.
2.Post-conflict mental health needs: A cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern SudanRoberts B et al; BMC Psychiatry2009Report of a study conducted to measure PTSD and depression amongst the conflict affected population in Juba, South Sudan. High levels pf mental distress were found amongst ex-combatants and the report includes recommendations for increasing access to social and psychological assistance and services.
3.The War Within: A Critical Examination of Psychosocial Issues and Interventions in DDRHinkel H: Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program, World Bank 2013Explores a variety of psychosocial issues impacting ex-combatants and communities and outlines recommendations for improving psychosocial support in future DDR programming. Case studies presented from Rwanda and Somaliland
4.From Rebel to Taxpayer? Working together for successful DDRNetherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NFA)/Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Clingandeal (CRU)2007Conference report from the Carlton Beach II Conference (2007): "From Rebel to Taxpayer? Working together for successful DDR". Explores a range of issues related to all stages of DDR including its role in underpinning wider peace and recovery frameworks and associated challenges with reintegration targeting and assistance. Includes a DRC Case Study which explores policy and practice issues specifically related to the establishment of DDR/SSR linkages
5.Reintegrating ex-combatants in the Great Lakes region - Lessons learnedAlusala N: Institute for Security Studies (ISS)2011This wide ranging report is built around an in depth and complex analysis of three DDR processes in: the Central African Republic (CAR), the Republic of Congo and Liberia. It explores issues related to all three main aspects of DDR and, in particular, has a useful analysis on issues related to weapons collection and the provision of reintegration support. Considerable emphasis is also placed on national ownership and the challenges associated with establishing national structures to implement programmes.
6.Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-Combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal EconomiesLamb G: Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program, World Bank 2012Drawing on CAR, DRC and South Sudan as Case Studies the paper explores issues related to economic reintegration. Comparative analysis drawn identifies the fact that in many post conflict settings informal economic activity provides the bulk of opportunities for ex-combatants and the general population. The paper also emphasizes the importance of social capital and the presence of support networks in promoting economic as well as social reintegration
7.Identifying lessons from DDR experiences in AfricaWorkshop Report, (ed). Meek S, Malan M. Institute of Security Studies (ISS)2004Report on August 2004 Accra workshop on DDR Presentations covered trends in DDR , relationships with PSO, planning and coordination, and working with special groups. Includes an analysis of issues related to Dealing with Commanders and the role of DDR within wider post conflict recovery frameworks. Examples drawn from a number of countries.
8.Practice Note - DDR of Ex- CombatantsUnited Nations Development Programmed (UNDP)2005Although heavily focused on DDR interventions running alongside Peace Support Operations the document provides comprehensive (if now somewhat dated) practical guidance for DDR policy makers and practitioners covering all aspects of DDR programming. Explores linkages with SSR, national ownership, interrelationship between reintegration and work with IDP's and other conflict affected groups. Includes useful discussion on types of programming that may be considered depending on political and security contexts faced. Presents examples drawn from a number of programmes on the African Continent.
9.Framework for Post-conflict reconstruction and TVETAfrican Union2007Statement of intent for implementing TVET in post-conflict reconstruction - includes establishment of indicators that may be of some value when considering DDR programme design/ M&E frameworks
10.Strategy to Revitalize Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)African Union2007Overview of strategic framework for revitalizing, modernizing and harmonizing TVET in Africa as a youth development and human capacity activity. Chapter 7 considers post conflict reconstruction synergies including role of BTVET in reintegration of ex-combatants. Use of BTVET to increase HR capacity and skills in post-conflict Rwanda briefly highlighted.
11.Vocational Training in Conflict-Affected AreasUNESCO/City & Guilds Centre for Skills Development2011Briefing note outlines importance of vocational training and jobs creation for youth and ex-combatants in conflict-affected areas and common challenges associated with BTVET provision and focus - including lack of labour market analysis and relevance of courses, Case examples from Uganda, South Sudan, Liberia and Sierra Leone.
12.Case Studies in War-to-Peace TransitionColletta N. et al; World Bank1996Lengthy document structured around three case studies from Ethiopia, Namibia and Uganda. Comprehensive analysis of each including exploration of the political, security and social contexts, programme design and resourcing, institutional arrangements and assessment of impact. Importantly study one of the few that appears to have systematically attempted to assess the economic impact of DDR on both the macro economy and ex-combatants themselves. Executive summary (pages 22-43) contains a list of key lessons learned for future programming. Important to note that all cases presented took place within the context of a clear end to conflict where a relatively strong national Government was able to take forward policies and programmes (Type A: Political and Security Context)
13.World Bank Pension Reform Primer: Pensions and Other Compensation in Post Conflict CountriesKostner M. et al; World Bank2004Useful policy brief that explores the challenges of considering benefits and pensions when dealing with the support of "veterans" in the aftermath of conflict. Discusses linkages between military pensions reform and DDR benefits and programmes and eligibility criteria. Examples drawn from a number of countries. A Table at the end of the document provides a useful summary of key lessons learned (page 8-9)
14.Socio-Economic Reintegration of Ex-CombatantsInternational Labour Organisation (ILO)2010Guidelines focusing on social and economic reintegration of ex-combatants. Includes substantial analysis of approaches for dealing with Special Needs Groups including women, children, youth, people with disabilities and people living with HIV/AIDS. The template for a mapping and economic analysis of the labour market may be of particular interest and value.
15.DDR of Ex-Combatants in a Peacekeeping EnvironmentDepartment of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), United Nations2000Guidelines for policy and practice of DDR within a PSO - covering approaches, main issues, procedures, and post-conflict peacebuilding. Section 6 (starting on p.81) covers procedures for demobilization and reintegration and includes procedures for encampment, weapons decommissioning etc. Focused largely on the provision of 'classic' linear DDR annexes contain samples of forms and procedures (drawn from Sierra Leone) for screening and registration, weapons destruction etc. that may be of value to practitioners.
16.Assistance to War Wounded Combatants and Individuals Associated with Fighting Forces in DDR ProgrammesMehreteab A; Cornell University ILR School2007Reviews and assesses support provided to XCs with disabilities in a number of African DDR programmes - including approaches to categorization of disability and intervention models. Comparative analysis drawn from programmes in Ethiopia, Liberia, Eritrea, Angola, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zimbabwe in particular. Conclusion and recommendations start on p.29.
17.The Role of ex-combatants and Veterans in violence in transitional societiesGwinyanyi Dzinesa, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR)2008Provides an overview of the issue of ex-combatant violence in southern Africa and explores the impact of conflict on male gender roles and its impact on social reintegration, identity and trauma and the role of weapons in post conflict societies. Draws on experience and examples from Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia, Mozambique and Angola
18.South Sudan DDR Programme Review ReportKingma K . et al, Stockholm Policy Group, for the Government of South Sudan (GOSS)2010This review of DDR interventions in South Sudan highlights and explores issues related to national frameworks and ownership and some of the challenges associated with this
19.DDR 20 Years Later: Historical Review of the Long-term Impact of Post-independence DDR in Southern AfricaLamb G: Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program, World Bank 2013Historical review and analysis of the long-term impact of DDR in several Southern African countries - draws a useful distinction between DDR associated with end of armed conflict and military downsizing as part of broader PFM /SSR processes. Key findings and lessons learned usefully summarised at end of the document (page 31-33). Report suggests that a key lesson for current and future DDR programmes that devising appropriate and sustainable reintegration processes at the onset is essential otherwise future interventions (possibly at a higher cost) may have to be pursued
20.Rumours of Peace, Whispers of War: Assessment of the reintegration of ex-combatants into civilian life in North Kivu, South Kivu and Ituri DRCLamb, G. et al; Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2012Assessment of the reintegration of XCs into civilian life in North Kivu, South Kivu and Ituri DRC. Includes a fairly detailed overview of the context in which DDR was attempted. Interesting commentary and recommendations on issues related to the absorption of some ex-combatants into new military structures (and why it may have failed) and the use/utility of reinsertion kits provided to ex-combatants.
21.Ex-combatants in Burundi: Why they joined, why they left, how they faredMulti-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), World Bank2007Drawing on interviews with 63 ex-combatants (rural and urban) this report explores the reasons that respondents joined armed groups and also what drove them to join the DDR programme before going on to examine how successfully they appear to have been reintegrated. The findings note the apparent importance of family support in reintegration and also questions the relative utility/cost effectiveness of commodity provision as opposed to cash support in most cases.
22.The drivers of reporter reintegration in Northern UgandaFinn A; Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2012This study carried out amongst LRA ex-combatants analyzes the drivers of reintegration of XCs in Northern Uganda - including those directly and indirectly linked to the DDR process. It highlights the importance of kinship networks as one of the main drivers of reintegration and challenges faced by female ex-combatants
23.Disentangling the Determinants of Successful Demobilization and ReintegrationWeinstein, J. et al; Columbia University & Stanford University2005Based on a sample of over 1000 ex-combatants in Sierra Leone this study sought to explore individual, group and community level determinants of reintegration success defined as whether ex-combatants have been accepted by their families, found employment, rejected their faction as a political actor and accepted the democratic process. One of the key determinants impacting on an individual’s prospect of gaining acceptance from family and neighbors was found to be the perceived abusiveness of the unit in which he or she fought - suggesting that this should be factor considered in the targeting and design of future interventions.
24.Reintegrating Rebels into Civilian Life Gilligan J M. et al; the Journal of Conflict Resolution August 2013 vol. 57 no. 4 598-6262011PowerPoint Presentation presenting issues related to methodological approach and key findings related to social and economic reintegration of ex-combatants in Burundi - useful examples of definitional challenges and methods for assessing livelihoods and political reintegration.
25.Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR): Conceptual approaches, specific settings, practical experiencesRufer R; Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)2005Lengthy document that identifies and describes in detail the evolution of DDR programmes and considers its practice and its application in different political and security contexts. Contains useful commentary and analysis on implications of regional/cross border conflict on DDR programming and relationship between DDR and post conflict justice approaches. Useful set of Annex listing DDR interventions since 1990 (to 2005) and summary analysis of contexts in which they were delivered and impact. Link Address
26.Concepts and Experiences of Demobilisiation and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants: Guidelines and instruments for future programmesGleichmann; Gesellschaft Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)1996Provides a systematic overview of individual stages and components of classic and linear DDR programs and issues that need to be considered by programme planners and implementers. Annex 4.2. (page 54 onwards) provides summary profiles of GTZ experiences in a number of countries up to 1996.
27.No Place by the Fire: The story of South African ex-combatants and the National Peace Accord TrustNell M. et al; Atlantic Philanthropies for South African Government2012A case study exploring the return and reintegration of ex-combatants in South Africa after the end of apartheid, offering a discussion of pitfalls, opportunities and challenges faced in terms of the provision of support in a post conflict setting
28.Stockholm Initiative on Disarmament Demobilisation Reintegration: Testing the PrinciplesSundh L .et al; Folke Bernadotte Academy2007Report emanating out of a series of roundtable discussions. Emphasizes the importance of understanding and analyzing the political and conflict dynamics in which DDR will be implemented and the need to establish linkages between DDR and wider SSR efforts. Useful commentary on the negative impacts of weapons buy back programmes in West Africa and innovative approaches to disarmament in Sudan.
29.Stabilisation Issues Note Disarmament Demobilisation Reintegration (DDR)Ukaid2010Basic definitions and background - but provides useful checklist/guidance on issues to consider when determining whether DDR or other responses are appropriate in specific types of situation
30.Avoiding Disarmament Failure: The Critical link in DDR, an operational manual for donors managers and practitioners Swarbrick P; Small Arms Survey, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva2007Highlights some of the most important obstacles to disarmament in DDR and how these may be overcome. Includes a detailed description of approaches to disarmament and potential programme design. Focuses heavily on examples drawn from DRC and Liberia. Link Address
31.Government Gazette Staatskoerant General NoticeGovernment of South Africa1994Sets out the initial plans of the Government of South Africa in relation to reconstruction and development in post apartheid South Africa - includes planned policy and programme responses for ex-combatants and veterans
32.Peace Recovery and Development Plan (PRDP) Phase 2 for Northern UgandaGovernment of Uganda (GOU)2011Peace Recovery and Development Plan (II) for Northern Uganda. Includes discussion on issues and planned policy and programme approaches related to the reintegration of ex-combatants and Transitional Justice - highlights challenges faced by female ex-combatants
33.Border community security Mano River Union regionPoole Maureen, Mohammed A Janet; Conciliation Resource2013Analysis of Cross Border dynamics and localised conflicts in Mano River Region. Includes discussion on implications for DDR approaches and initiatives. Challenges identified include the tendency for DDR programmes to have national rather than regional focus - despite conflict dynamics being regional in nature - and the need for more attention to youth employment issues.
34. Blame It on the War? The Gender Dimensions of Violence in DDRInter-Agency Working Group on Disarma_ment, Demobilization and Reintegration (IAWG - DDR) UN2012Comprehensive exploration of issues related to gender dimensions of violence in post conflict settings and their importance for DDR programmes. Emphasises the importance of understanding male and female changing gender identities and roles in society - often impacted by conflict. Provides a conceptual framework for addressing the gender-specific causes, impacts and dynamics of violence emerging from armed conflict and their importance in social and economic reintegration - including the need to engage with and address issues related to male as well as female gender identities and concerns. Contains recommendations for future DDR programmes (page 72) Draws extensively on case studies to emphasizes points.
35.DDR: A Practical Field and Classroom GuideGleichmann C .et al; German Technical Co-operation (GTZ), the Norwegian Defense International Centre (NODEFIC), Pearson Peacekeeping Centre (PPC), Swedish National Defense College (SNDC)2004Provide a comprehensive overview of all aspects of classical DDR operations. Designed as a training manual for staff in organisations that are involved in DDR programmes. Series of checklists covering various aspects of DDR programming at Annex 6 which may be of particular value to practitioners.
36.Second International conference on DRR in Africa, Kinshasa DRC " Linkage between DDR & SRR" Building Sustainable Peace in AfricaOffice of Special Advisers on Africa (OSAA) UN, Governments of Belgium and Sweden 2007Report of 2007 Second International Conference on DDR in Africa, Analysis of DDR trends, developments and institutional arrangements. Useful mini-compendium of DDR experiences in a number of countries. Specifically identified needs to address regional aspects of conflict dynamics, women and children associated with armed groups and Transitional Justice
37.Reintegration and Long-Term Development: Linkages and ChallengesBuxton Julia; Center for International Cooperation and Security (CICS2008Explores the interface between DDR and strategies for post conflict reconstruction and long term development - including Transitional Results Frameworks and Poverty Reduction Strategies etc. Some useful examples of specific reintegration challenges and successes are raised and highlighted.
38.The Role of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programs in Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Some Lessons Learnt African Development Bank Group2011This paper elaborates on the Africa Development Bank’s experience in operations in post conflict environments where DDR is being carried out and linkages to overall planning frameworks and SSR in particular, Case studies drawn from South Sudan, Liberia and DRC. National ownership issues specifically explored.
39.Cross Border Criminal Activities in West Africa: Options for Effective Responses Prosper Addo; Kofi Annan International Peace Training Centre (KAIPTC)2006Useful exploration of dynamics associated with cross border crimes in West Africa - important linkages to DDR in terms of cross border involvement of rebel groups / armed gangs in weapons smuggling, narcotics and human trafficking and related issues for DDR. Includes exploration of issues in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Guinea Bissau in particular
40.Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African UnionAfrican Union2002Protocol relating to establishment of the peace and security council of the AU - of relevance to the role of member states in supporting DDR and broader conflict resolution and prevention efforts
41.Negotiating peace in Sierra Leone: Confronting the Justice challengePriscilla Hayner; Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (hd)2007Explores issues related to the Lomé Accord and access to Justice - some discussion on tensions between ex-combatant reintegration and justice for victims in Sierra Leone and the role of Amnesties
42.Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration of Children Associated with Fighting Forces; Lessons Learned in Sierra LeoneUnited Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)2002Captures key lessons learned in the children’s component of the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programme in Sierra Leone.
43.DDR 2008. Analysis of World's DDR programmes in 2007Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB)2008In depth comparative analysis of 19 DDR programmes in Africa, it covers Angola, Burundi, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Liberia, Niger, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda and Guinea-Bissau. Useful contextual and programme analysis. Country case studies preceded by an overarching summary including a section on Transitional Justice and attempts to analyse the cost of DDR across the different programmes. Link Address
44.DDR in DRC: Programme updateWorld Bank2009Update report on the progress of DDR activities and the DDR programme in DRC at that time. Provides some interesting commentary on the challenges associated with SSR and programme linkages and the reintegration of groups with special needs
45.In DRC, MDRP helps female ex-combatants regain a livelihoodMulti-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), World Bank2008Background information on the LEAP Project a programme designed to assist vulnerable female ex-combatants with their social and economic reintegration
46.Fresh Insights on Disarmament,Demobilization and Reintegration: A Survey for PractitionersStankovic T .et al; Norwegian institute of internal affairs (NUPI) & Centre for peace studies (CPS)2010Useful examination of available evidence for the impact of DDR in terms of its effect on wider post conflict stabilisation efforts. Specific themes covered include DDR and Post war politics, issues related to the integration of Commanders and the utility of Commander Incentive Programmes and social and political reintegration. Most examples are drawn from Central Asia but findings are highly relevant in many African contexts.
47.UN Regional Strategy to Address the Threat & the impact of the Activities of the LRA: Implementation PlanSecurity Council, United Nations (UN)2013Provides an overview of the strategy, highlights priorities within the five strategic areas of intervention and specifies roles. and responsibilities for implementation.
48.DDR in Uganda, A Mini Case Study Finnegan L, Flew C; Centre for International Co-operation and Security (CICS), University of Bradford, Saferworld2008This case study on DDR in Uganda was conducted against the backdrop of the ongoing LRA insurgency, at a time when the GoU was conducting a Defence Review with support of donors and when non-formal armed groups were being offered Amnesty and reintegration support. It explores issues around whether effective linkages were developed between DDR efforts, SSR and SALW and the factors underpinning this.
49.The R-Phase of Reintegration; An Overview of key lessons learned and Practical ExperiencesSpecker L; Conflict Research Unit, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Clingandeal 2008The paper aims to map key lessons learned and practical experiences of DDR processes. It specifically focuses on reintegration an explores issues related to urban and rural reintegration, cash benefits, sequencing and national ownership. Useful discussion on Evaluation of DDR Programmes (Section 3.7)
50.Review of International Financing Arrangements for DDR, Phase 1 Report to Working Group 2 of the Stockholm Initiative on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (SIDDR)Ball N, and Hendrickson D; Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden & Folke Bernadotte Academy2005This paper constitutes the first part of a review, commissioned by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, of the experience of international actors in financing disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) processes. It is intended to inform the financing-related discussions of Working Group 2 of the Swedish Initiative on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (SIDDR). It includes background information on the costs of DDR programs, sources of funding, and exploration of the types of funding mechanisms and instruments deployed. A detailed mapping of DDR programmes assessed by number of beneficaries and cost is provided at Annex 3.
51.Final Disarmament, Demobilisation & Reintegration of Somalia MilitiaWorld Bank2005This 2005 scoping paper considers the role of DDR in stabilisation efforts within the Somalia context and what types of programme approaches may be appropriate. Predating subsequent literature on 2G DDR it nevertheless identifies many of the challenges associated with DDR, and its potential utility, in a security and political context where there are multiple groups and ongoing conflict.
52.Republic of South Sudan National DDR programme 2013-2014 Pilot Reintegration ProjectTransitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2014Review of the National DDR (NDDRC’s) Pilot Reintegration project - the purpose of the project was to test reintegration approaches and modalities and develop actionable lessons to inform and improve the Republic of South Sudan’s future DDR programming
53.Transitional Justice and DDR: The Case of Liberia Jaye T; International Center for Transitional Justice, (ICTJ)2009Explores the relationship between transitional justice and the DDRR program in Liberia during the period of the negotiation of the CPA in 2003 through August 2007, as well as a brief overview of an earlier failed DDRR process.
54.Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration (DDR) and Stability in AfricaOffice of Special Advisers on Africa (OSAA) UN, Government of Sierra Leone2005Report on the Conference on Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Stability (DDR) in Africa which took place from 21 to 23 June 2005 in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Organized by the Government of the Republic of Sierra Leone and the United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (OSAA). Specific case studies presented on Angola, Burundi, DRC, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zimbabwe. A summary of key findings and lessons learned is presented on page 11.
55.Transitional Justice and DDR: The Case of Sierra Leone Jaye T; International Center for Transitional Justice, (ICTJ)2009Explores the ways in which DDR programs may contribute to, or hinder, the achievement of justice-related aims. Using Sierra Leone as a case study identifies how DDR programs have connected (or failed to connect) with transitional justice and suggests how future programmes might practically establish such links
56.Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) in Peace Agreements and UN Peacekeeping Mandates Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), United Nations2010This document highlights the extent to which DDR was included in the Peace Agreements and UN Peacekeeping mandates in Mozambique, Guatemala, Sierra Leone, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, and Liberia.
57.Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programs - An AssessmentSchulhofer Wohl J; Folke Bernadotte Academy2010Useful report that seeks to systematically explore evidence of the impact of DDR. Report suggests that that in many cases this is limited and that evaluations of DDR programs need to move beyond its focus on performance and instead focus on impact in terms of building peace. Tools and methods for improving M&E in DDR are suggested.
58.Transitional Justice and DDR. The Case of Rwanda Waldorf L; Research Unit, International Center for Transitional Justice, (ICTJ)2009Part of a series that explores the ways in which DDR programs may contribute to, or hinder, the achievement of justice-related aims. Rwanda case study offers commentary on the role of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the role of the Gacaca (community) courts.
59.Targeting Multi Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP) Assistance: Ex-Combatants and other war-affected populationsMulti-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), World Bank2004Position paper. Useful exploration of eligibility criteria and approaches for beneficiary targeting.
60.Final Evaluation of the Pilot Reintegration Project Republic of South Sudan New NDDR Programme 2013-2014Finn A and Breitung. C; Bonn International Centre for Conversion (BICC) for the Republic of South Sudan Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Commission (SSDDRC)2014 Final evaluation report of Pilot Project for the RSSDDRC - includes discussion of the challenge of evaluating the programme given the renewal of hostilities in South Sudan at the time.
61. A Comparative Study of Ex-Combatant Reintegration in the African Great Lakes Region: Trajectories, Processes, and Paradoxes Rhea R W; Centre for Peace Studies, University of Tromsø for World Bank2014Comparative analysis of ex-combatant reintegration processes in Burundi, DRC, Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. Highlights the importance of social capital and networks and their restoration as key factors in both the social and economic reintegration of ex-combatants.
62.Making Vocational Training Work: A Study of Vocational Training in DDR Finn A .et al; Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2014This report details the findings from a research study of outcomes of the vocational training provided to ex-combatant beneficiaries through the Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Programme. Vocational training was found to play an important part in increasing levels of self confidence and self reliance as well as building social capital - irrespective of the particular skill sets learned. The report also emphasizes the apparent value of the provision of literacy & numeracy skills alongside vocational training.
63.DDR before DDR North African Veterans from Colonial Mobilization to National Reintegration Hannoum A; Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2013Reviews the experiences of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia with regards to reintegrating former soldiers and fighters into society in the aftermath of the struggle for independence.
64.Peace, Democracy and Human Rights: A Handbook for Ex-CombatantsTransitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2013Innovative Handbook is meant to aid the ex-combatants to learn their rights and obligations as civilian individuals, as family members, as community members and as members of the society. Based on the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights.
65. Sustainable Reintegration of Ex-combatants: Shadow economies and Cross Border tradeTransitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2012This note draws on a variety of studies and experiences to highlight the need for DDR practitioners to understand the significant role that informal and shadow trade often plays in societies in transition from conflict and the importance of considering this during programme design.
66.Uganda Demobilization and Reintegration Project Beneficiary AssessmentFinn A .et al; Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank 2011Document reports findings of this project review. Includes a useful description of a four dimensional approach to assessing the success of reintegration efforts exploring factional, political, economic and social dimensions. Explores particular challenges faced be female ex-combatants in social reintegration and factors driving this.
67.Moving to Catch up: Migration of Ex-Combatants in Uganda Ex combatants migration factors and Links between Migration and ProgrammingBaxter D, and Burrall A; Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), World Bank2011 Report analysing mobility and migration among ex-combatants and push and pull factors in the Uganda context - considers implications for policy and programming.
68.Beyond Demobilization: Challenges and Opportunities for Security Sector Reform in the Central African RepublicN' Ddiaye B; Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), World Bank2007Case Study of CAR in 2005 emphasizing the complexities and interrelationship between DDR and SSR efforts.
69.Reintegration Assistance for Excombatants: Good Practices and lessons for the MDRPMicheal S; Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), World Bank2006Comprehensive and practical information on lessons learned from the design and implementation of reintegration programmes including models of support for reinsertion, vocational training and programme management. Case studies at Annex C on the Namibian experience of setting up 'development Brigades and institutional structures for DDR in Ethiopia.
70.Where are Girls? Girls in Fighting Forces in Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique: Their Lives During and After WarMcKay S and Mazurana D; Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and National Trade2004Presents findings from a research study entitled "Girls in Militaries, Paramilitaries, Militias, and Armed Opposition Groups" focused on Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique
71.Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration in Sierra Leone Solomon C and Ginifer J; Centre for International Co-operation and Security (CICS), University of Bradford2008Comprehensive case study on DDR in Sierra Leone. Emphasized the need for improved consultation and community involvement, better provision for vulnerable groups and the more effective linkages and promotion of micro and small businesses.
72.From Civilians to Soldiers and from Soldiers to Civilians, Mobilization and Demobilization in Sudan Baas Saskia; Amsterdam University Press2012This documents aims to provide a complex and in depth analysis of mobilization processes in armed groups and the dynamics that affect individual involvement in armed groups. It argues that there is a need to move beyond technical discussions on DDR and that programming should be better informed by an analysis of the dynamics of post-conflict security and how stakeholders can influence and impact on these.
73.Changing Fortunes: Women's Economic Opportunities in Post-War Northern UgandaInternational Alert2010Forms part of a wider comparative study on women's political participation in countries emerging from conflict undertaken in the Great Lakes region by International Alert, together with the East African Sub-Regional Support Initiative for the Advancement of Women (EASSI). Link Address
74.DDR in the Democratic Republic of Congo: An Overview Kolln Andre; Peace Direct2011Assess the effectiveness of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programs in the Democratic Republic of Congo which were carried out under the Multi- Demobilisation and Reintegration programme (MDRP) between 2002 and 2009
75.The importance of a gender perspective to successful disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processesVanessa A. F; United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)2003Reviews recent DDR processes, drawing both from conversations with DDR field practitioners and planners working within various UN agencies, and from academic accounts of DDR to argue for increased attention to women role and voice in DDR planning and programming. Considers the role of UNSCR 1325 in taking this forward.
76.Bearing witness, Girl Mothers of Gulu DistrictMurungi B.K; Association of Women Lawyers in Uganda (FIDA-U)2011This case study highlights the reintegration challenges faced by female LRA ex-combatants who had been forcibly recruited by the LRA in northern Uganda and considers the implications for policy and programmes - including for those designing Transitional Justice initiatives.
77.Evaluation of Sudan Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) ProgrammeBhattacharjee A, and Gadkarim H. G; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Sudan2012Assessment of the Sudan DDR Programme (SDDRP) reintegration (R) Intervention in terms of its contribution to facilitating transition and integration of ex combatants.
78.A Hard Home coming Lessons Learned from the Reception Center Process in Northern UgandaUnited States Agency for International Development, (USAID), United Nations Children's Fund2006Report examining assumptions and evidence about the needs and experiences of children and adults returning from the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and transiting through Reception Centres established to provide initial support and counselling.
79.Socio-Economic Reintegration of Ex-Combatants: What Role for the European Union?International Alert 2009Policy brief prepared for the European Union outlining challenges and opportunities associated with reintegration. Link Address
80.Sustaining the Peace in Angola: An Overview of Current Demobilisation, Disarmament and ReintegrationParsons I, and Porto J.G; Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)2003Comprehensive overview and analysis of the DDR process in Angola post 2002. Useful analysis of challenges and opportunities in what was a process with a high degree of political ownership by the Government. Highlights challenges associated with encampment, coordination, programme management and the reintegration of ex-combatants in an environment where large numbers of people were also internally displaced and communities impacted by protracted civil war.
81.Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in the Kivu Provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo: Insights from Former CombatantsElbert T .et al; World Bank2013In depth analysis of SGBV in Kivu - includes an attempt to examine and explore factors that made SGBV more likely. Includes (page 65)a series recommendations for future programmes and interventions
82.Stockholm Initiative on Disarmament Demobilisation ReintegrationBall N, and Hendrickson D; Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden & Folke Bernadotte Academy2006Final report of the Stockholm Initiative on Disarmament Demobilisation Reintegration - a programme initiated with the aim of proposing ways and means that can contribute to the creation of a predictable framework in which DDR processes could be planned and implemented. The document summarizes the main findings and recommendations in relation to this initiative - includes sections on the role of DDR in negotiations & peace agreements, reintegration approaches, financing DDR, DDR and longer term security frameworks and transitional justice. Annex 3 contains suggested Guiding Principles on the role of DDR in negotiations. Overall recommendations are summarised at Chapter 4.
83.Developing integrated approaches to post-conflict security and recovery. A case study of integrated DDR in SudanPreston S .et al; Saferworld 2008Report detailing attempts to conduct integrated approaches to disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and post conflict security programming in Sudan. Highlights challenges. Link Address
84.Understanding the DDR-SSR Nexus: Building Sustainable Peace in Africa Bryden, A; Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)"2007Issue Paper developed for the United Nations Office of the Special Advisor for Africa as a contribution to the 2nd international Conference on DDR and Stability, Kinshasa, 12-14 June 2007. Link Address
85.Review of international financing arrangements for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration Phase 2 Report to Working Group 2 of the SIDDRBall N, and Hendrickson D; Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden & Folke Bernadotte Academy2005Phase II report of this study commissioned by the SIDDR that explored international financing arrangements for DDR and issues related to harmonization and policy coherence. Broad conclusions center around three key issues and recommendations; (a) the need to anchor DDR in wider security transformation processes; 2) steps required to harmonize and align external assistance and mandates; and 3) the identification of ways to more effectively and flexibly fund DDR. Case studies from Liberia and DRC are extensively drawn on to form and illustrate conclusions. Executive summary concisely summarizes findings.
86.Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration in South Sudan: The Limits of Conventional Peace and Security TemplatesMunive J; Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)2013This report explores the DDR programme in South Sudan; in particular how it has evolved, what the major challenges have been to its implementation and assesses what it can be expected to achieve. The authors argue that standard DDR programmes are not fit for purpose in a context like South Sudan and argues that achieving security needs to be based on comprehending and changing the basic structures and mechanisms of armed mobilization and adapt security sector reform to a political environment that is constructed in terms of potential for violence and threats of destabilization.
87.When Do Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Programmes Succeed?Banholzer L; German Development Institute2014Offers a multi-dimensional perspective on DDR and attempts to identify the key factors contributing to their success or failure. Comments on the importance of political context - arguing that there is little evidence that DDR can have impact in the absence of the termination of conflict, the importance of institutional arrangements and programme sequencing.
88.Young Female Fighters in African Wars. Conflict and Its ConsequencesCoulter C .et al; Nordiska Afrikain stitutet, UPPSALA 20082008Provides a comprehensive overview of the role of young women in conflict and post conflict situations in Africa including their role in armed groups, in DDR and post conflict reconstruction. Draws extensively on case examples. Useful checklist for policy and decision makers at page 42.
89.Where to go from here?Akello Dorcus; Centre for Children in Vulnerable Situations, War Child Holland2013Collection of papers presented at the International Conference "Children and Youth Affected by Armed Conflict: Where to go from here?" that took place in Kampala in 2013. Papers include exploration of challenges faced in reintegration by CAAFG, examples of programme responses and analysis of youth dynamics in conflict causation and prevention.
90.Soldiers Returning Home, Children's perspectives on reintegration, A Case study of children abducted by the Lord's Resistance Army in Teso, eastern UgandaChrobok V and Akutu A; Coalition to Stop the Use of Child 2008Report detailing the experiences of children returning from the Lords Resistance Army. Includes perceptions of their recruitment, life with the group and the reintegration process. Link Address
91.United Nations Policy for Post-Conflict Employment Creation, Income Generation and ReintegrationUnited Nations (UN)2009Outlines approaches for generating employment opportunities in post conflict situations - including guiding principles. Includes consideration of emergency employment programmes, start up grants and promotion of longer term employment opportunities and decent work standards. Of relevance to DDR. Annex 2 :considers specific challenges associated with creation of opportunities for Youth and Annex 3: considers Gender specificities.
92.Community-Based Reintegration of War-Affected Young Mothers: Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Liberia, Sierra Leone & Northern UgandaMcKay S.et al; for Pargirlmothers2010Report describes a community-based participatory action research (PAR) project involving approximately 658 young mothers in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Northern Uganda. Authors sought to understand reintegration from the young mothers’ perspectives, learning from them about what constitutes successful reintegration for themselves and their children. Includes a summary of key findings and recommendations.
93.Security Promotion in Fragile States: Can Local Meet National? Willemset R .et al; Working Group Community Security and Community-based DDR in Fragile States, 2009Explores the Connections between Community Security and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programmes - contains recommendations on potential approaches for more effectively linking community security with DDR planning and programming.
94.How -to Guide Gender-Responsive Disarmament, Demobilisation and ReintegrationDietrich L .et al; Inter-Agency Working Group on DDR (IAWG)2012Provides step-by-step instructions on how to practically translate gender considerations into DDR programming - contains a useful toolkit and resources including checklists, mechanisms for mapping personnel gender competencies and approaches for ensuring M&E frameworks are gender sensitive.
95.A Framework Document for Evidence-Based Programme Design on ReintegrationDerek B. Miller B D and Rudnick L; United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research2012Explores and presents a conceptual Framework for working with evidence in the design of reintegration programmes to support efforts towards greater local impact at field level
96.The Role of Natural Resources in Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration. Addressing Risks and seizing Opportunities United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP2013Report focuses on the role of natural resources in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes and illustrates Report explores how the management of natural resources can be used to promote more effective and sustainable reintegration. Draws on case studies and makes recommendations for policy makers and programmers
97.Transitional Justice and Social ReintegrationBall N, and Hendrickson D; Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden & Folke Bernadotte AcademyPaper Focuses on the relationship between transitional justice and DDR arguing that if properly applied they may be mutually supportive and assist social reintegration in particular. Table of conclusions and recommendations at the end of the document linking TJ measures with potential DDR approaches.
98.Economic reintegration of children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groupsInternational Labour Organization (ILO)2010Paper explores challenges associated withe the economic reintegration of CAAFG and also explores potential models and approaches vocational skills training and livelihood creation for young people. Includes a case study from DRC.
99.Connecting Community Security and DDR: Experiences from Eastern DRCRouw H and Willems R; Working Group Community Security and Community-based DDR in Fragile States2010This report is based on 11 weeks of field research in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 2009. Its aim is to connect community security and Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programmes in a context specific way. The collected perceptions are analyzed in the discussion aiming towards practical recommendations for DDR programmers, the international community and local initiatives involved in DDR processes.
100.Child soldiers and Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration in West Africa Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers2005This document is a synthesis of Lessons Learned following programme interventions with child soldiers in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and contains recommendations on how to avoid re recruitment, ensure personnel are better able to respond to children's needs and how their reintegration needs may be more effectively addressed. Link Address
101.Taking a Gender Perspective to Strengthen the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP) in the greater Great Lakes RegionMulti-Country Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme (MDRP)2005From October 31 to November 2, 2005, the World Bank/MDRP Secretariat and UNIFEM held a consultation workshop aimed at strengthening gender in the MDRP national programs. Includes an analysis of situation faced in each country and recommendations for gender mainstreaming
102.A Study of Gender, Masculinities and Reintegration of Former Combatants in Rwanda: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)Learning on Gender and Conflict in Africa (LOGiCA) for World Bank2014This study aims to understand male ex-combatants practices and attitudes as they relate to gender equality, and the impact on men of participation in collective violence and armed groups, with a specific focus on the effects of demobilization and reintegration programming on gender dynamics and male identity construction. Contains important findings on mental and psychological stress levels amongst male combatants and the need for the provision of support as they seek new identities as ex-combatants
103.Reintegrating and Employing High Risk Youth in Liberia: Lessons from a randomized evaluation of a Landmine Action agricultural training program for ex-combatantsBlattman C and Annan J; Yale University and Innovations for Poverty Action(IPA) International Rescue Committee and Harvard University2011Review of an agricultural training programme for high risk youth in Liberia - report seeks to specifically identify the impact of the programme in terms of levels of aggression and likelihood of participation on illegal activities.
104.Southern Sudan and DDR: Adopting an Integrated approach to StabilizationSmall Arms Survey2009A collection of four papers emanating out of a workshop exploring the feasibility of DDR in South Sudan. Papers explore the linkages between DDR and wider SSR and stabilisation initiatives and potential alternative approaches to stabilization. Link Address
105.Community Focused ReintegrationUnited States Agency for International Development, (USAID)Introduces community focused reintegration as a concept and provide a synthesis of lessons learned drawing on case studies from Burundi, DRC and Liberia
106.Seeing DDR From Below: Challenges and Dilemmas raised by the Experiences of ex-combatants in LiberiaJennings M K; Fafo Foundation2008Drawn from lessons learned in Liberia the paper aims to assist policymakers and practitioners in designing DDR programme that is more attuned to the challenges posed and faced by rank-and- file former fighters and the societies of which they are part
107.Peace Building and the process of Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration: the experience of Mozambique and Sierra LeoneToki H; Japan Institute of International Cooperation Agency (JICA)2004Drawing on experiences in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mozambique analyses the factors that determine effective DDR processes
108.Negotiating Disarmament and Demobilisation in Peace Processes: What is the State of the Evidence?Muggah R and Rierger M; Norwegian Peace Building Center (NOREF) 2012Considers the extent to which disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and related concepts are accounted for in peace processes and peace agreements. Provides in tabular form a comprehensive analysis of DDR inclusion in past peace agreements. Experience suggests that DDR is usually a highly political processes and that it is not therefore always advisable that it is made a precondition of agreements. Even so good practice suggests that DDR and security provisions should nevertheless be discussed openly and that a wide range of “security promotion” practices should be considered alongside conventional DDR.
109.Coming Home. A Case Study Community Led Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration in DR CongoGillhespy T and Hayman C; Peace Direct2011Describes a community led disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) project carried out by the Congolese NGO Centre Resolution Conflicts (CRC) in Nord Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, from 2008 to 2011.
110.Healing Fractured Lives: Reconciliation and reintegration in RwandaTobie A and Masabo F; International Alert2012Focuses on the lessons learned and current situation in terms of reconciliation and reintegration efforts in Rwanda based on an analysis of the Fostering Reconciliation and Socio-Economic Reintegration in Rwanda project implemented by International Alert and its partners. This programme took a broad approach to building social cohesion in the aftermath of the genocide working with survivors, ex-combatants and prisoners. Useful commentary on approaches towards social and political reintegration at community level and the inclusion of transitional justice approaches. Link Address
111.Measuring the Unmeasurable: Community Reintegration of Former Child Soldiers in Cote d'IvoireHamakawa T and Randall K; Save the Children2008Based on a mid-term evaluation of a Save UK’s community reintegration project for girls formerly associated with armed forces in Cote D' Ivoire and recognizing the challenges in assessing programmes effectiveness this paper attempts to put forward a potential methodology for measuring the reintegration process in complex settings.
112.Transitional Justice and DDR. The Case of South AfricaMerwe H and Lamb G; International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)2009This paper, part of a series produced by ICTJ, seeks to analyse the linkages between DDR and Transitional Justice. The paper contextualizes the conflict in South Africa and then looks specifically at the DDR program, including the military negotiation process and the integration of the separate armed forces as well as the reintegration of former combatants. It then outlines the larger transitional justice measures employed in the South African context. In its final section, the paper analyzes the relationship between DDR and transitional justice providing suggestions regarding how they might have been linked and lessons for future processes..
113.Post Conflict Peace Building in Africa: Assessing DDR ProcessKofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) .Accra, Ghana2006Report of a workshop held at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in 2006 that brought together participants to discuss, compare and assess DDR experiences and identify lessons learned.
114.Forced Migration Review. HIV/AIDS, Security and Conflict: Making the Connections(eds) Couldrey M et al; Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford2010This collection of articles explores the interconnections between conflict and HIV/AIDS -and includes specific analysis of the role of combatants/ex combatants in transmission (article 12) as well as potential opportunities for using DDR programmes as entry points for prevention activities (article 14).
115.Multi-country Demobilization and Reintegration Program: End of Program Evaluation Multi-country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP)2009This comprehensive end of programme evaluation provides a detailed analysis of all components of the MDRP from design to p[reject implementation modalities. Chapter V (page 43) provides a synthesis of lessons learned and detailed summaries of individual projects are provided within the Annex.
116.Feasibility Study into the Rehabilitation & Reintegration of Unregistered Ex-Combatants Guthrie Rubber Plantation, LiberiaUrias D. et al; Research for Department for International Development (DFID)2006This Case Study highlights the situation faced by groups of youth excluded from formal DDR processes and the dynamics that ensued. The paper argues the case for flexible and responsive programming that deals with emerging priorities on the ground in order to under stabilisation efforts.
117.The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Conflict Prevention FrameworkEconomic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)2008A copy of this comprehensive Framework assented to by member states in 2008. Contains several references to DDR and member states obligations to support DDR programmes and approaches to doing so.
118.African Union Policy on Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development African Union2006Copy of this document adopted by member states in July 2006. Article 25 gives specific reference to the need for DDR programmes to support post conflict reconstruction and development efforts.
119.What the Fighters Say. A Survey of Ex-Combatants in Sierra LeoneHumphreys M and Weinstein M J; Columbia University Stanford University, UN mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)2004Describes the initial findings of a survey of a representative sample of 1043 combatants from Sierra Leone's civil war, presents information on the demographic profile of the combatant population, their motivations for joining and incentives for staying within the different factions, and their attitudes about the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) process
120.Back but not home: supporting the reintegration of former LRA abductees into civilian life in DR Congo and South SudanMedeiros E; Conciliation Resources2014This report explores the experiences of former LRA ex-combatants and their communities as they attempt to reintegrate in DRC and South Sudan. It highlights the important role of family support, the need for cultural specificity in the design of interventions, and work with local leaders. The challenges posed by legacy of conflict on communal tensions and mental health are highlighted.
121.Consolidating Peace in Liberia and Sierra Leone. An international review of peace initiatives Drew E and Ramsbotham A; Conciliation Resources2012Analysis of issues related to post conflict stabilisation and peace building in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Contains useful analysis on community attitudes towards social cohesion and the use of employments schemes to encourage and establish both social and economic reintegration of both ex-combatants and other at risk youth
122.Whose Justice? Perceptions of Uganda's Amnesty Act 2000: The Potential for Conflict Resolution and Long-term ReconciliationRefugee Law Project2005Report analyses the process of amnesty as characterized in Uganda’s Amnesty Act 2000 primarily from the perspective of those who experienced the process first hand – either as combatants or as community members. Specific focus is on the issue of reintegration of ex-combatants and their acceptance, or non-acceptance, within the communities and the role of locally developed transitional justice mechanisms.
123.What Makes an Ex-Combatant Happy? A Micro Analysis of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration in South SudanPhayal A. et al; University of Kentucky, United Nations 2015Focused on research undertaken in South Sudan Examines several factors that might influence an ex-combatant's satisfaction with DDR, including economic concerns, security concerns, external security guarantors, and ethnicity
124.Monitoring and Evaluation of Peace Operations with the Norwegian Institute of International AffairsInternational Peace Institute(IPI)2009Report of a workshop organized by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and the International Peace Institute (IPI) on the “Monitoring and Evaluation of Peace Operations,” held in in New York in 2009. Challenges associated with impact indicator identification for overall peace frameworks are discussed - including the issue of causality and attribution. M&E in DDR specifically highlighted (page 7). A number of case studies drawn on.
125.Second International conference on DRR in Africa, Kinshasa DRC “Combatants on Foreign Soil" Office of Special Advisers on Africa (OSAA) UN, Governments of Belgium and Sweden 2007Report of the 2007 DDR Conference in Kinshasa. Report attempts to define and describe how and why individuals become COFS and potential options for intervention.
126.Protocol to the OAU Convention on the Prevention and Combating of TerrorismAfrican Union2004To facilitate the timely exchange and sharing of information on terrorist groups and activities at the regional, continental and international levels, including the cooperation of States for suppressing the financing of terrorism
127.Challenges of Security Sector Governance in francophone West Africa (eds) Bryden A and N'Diaye, B; Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) Geneva2011Provides a useful background and analytical framework that can support the implementation of the ECPF, which has security as one of its key components. Link Address
128.Mano River Union Conflict Assessment and Peacebuilding Results Framework Nelson S and Bassene M; for US Agency for International Development (USAID)2003Presentation of framework for interventions by USAID's West African Regional Program (WARP) in the areas of cross-border/sub-regional conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Mano River Union (MRU) including Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia
129.Security in post-conflict contexts: What counts as progress and what drives it?Valters C et.al, Development Progress Working Paper 4, Overseas Development Institute2014This paper seeks to explore the issue as to how security and stabilisation programmes measure and attribute progress in what are often complex and non linear environments. Section 3.3 specifically highlights and considers DDR.
130.Interim Stabilization Balancing Security and Development in Post-Conflict PeacebuildingColetta J et al.Folke Bernadotte Academy2008This paper explores the concept of interim stabilisation in the immediate aftermath of conflict. As well as exploring the synergy between SSR and DDR it suggests that in many complex situations there may be a strong case for delaying DDR - arguing that the potential impact of DDR needs to be carefully considered in the early stages of a stabilisation process. Drawing on case studies from South Africa, Uganda and DRC it explores the benefits, as well as some of the potential risks of the creation of 'Interim Stabilisation Approaches' as alternatives to immediate DDR and SSR.
131. Football and Post-War Reintegration: exploring the role of sport in DDR processes in Sierra Leone, Third World Quarterly, 32:3, 395-415Dyck, C Third World Quarterly, 32:3, 395-415, University of Alberta2011Using a case study on Sierra Leone, this paper focuses on the potential role of sports in DDR to determine how ex-youth combatants, camp administrators and caregivers perceive the role and significance of sporting activities in interim care centers (ICCs) or DDR camps. It argues that sporting experiences in DDR processes are fruitful microcosms for understanding nuanced forms of violence and healing among youth combatants during their reintegration process.
132.The Nexus between Social Capital and Reintegration of Ex-combatants: A Case for Sierra LeoneLeff J, African Journal on Conflict Resolution Vol. 82008This study argues that in order to achieve successful reintegration of ex-combatants, a community focused approach that generates social capital must be implemented. using a case study from Sierra Leone the relationship between social capital and reintegration is demonstrated.
133.Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent ExtremismÖzerdem A, Journal of Strategic Security 4, no. 4 : 63-80.2011This article explores the complex push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict (including re-recruitment). It argues that as part of disarming youth combatants, the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible re-recruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood. In the authors analysis the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one.
134.Listening for Change: Participatory Evaluations of DDR in Mali, Cambodia and AlbaniaMuggah R, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research2005This report summarizes the findings of a large-scale comparative research project that sought to test the applicability of participatory monitoring and evaluation and its relevance as a methodology in DDR and arms reduction schemes. Mali was one of the focus countries in which the research was conducted.
135.Armed and Aimless: Armed groups, Guns and Human Security in the ECOWAS RegionFlorquin E et al, Small Arms Survey, 2005This lengthy report is comprehensive study of armed groups and small arms in the ECOWAS region up to early 2005. Part I contains six in-depth studies. Part II consists of a region-wide mapping of armed groups operational at that time in the ECOWAS region. It is included as the detailed analysis provided contains useful information on both cross border conflict dynamics as well as some of the drivers of participation in armed groups as well as ex-combatant recycling. Conclusions drawn (pgs. 385) highlight the regional and complex dynamics of regional threats and the need for coordinated responses. Link Address
136.Improving Security in Violent Conflict Settings: Security & Justice Thematic PaperSpear J, Harbone B, World Development Report(2011) for World Bank 2011This comprehensive but succinct report explores issues related to violence and conflict in complex settings , highlighting clearly the blurred lines across which many development and stabilisation programmes have to operate. It contains an in depth analysis of DDR objectives and considers why 'traditional' DDR responses are inadequate / insufficient to deal with many of the situations in which they are often called for.
137.Loosening Kony's Grip: Effective defection strategies for Today's LRALancaster P, Cakaj L, The Resolve LRA Crisis Initiative 2013This report examines in some detail the evolution of the LRA from a Ugandan insurgent group to a force operating across the Central African region. Of interest to DDR practitioners will be the detailed discussion on the challenges and potential options for encouraging group members to 'come out' in situations where they cannot access their communities and the challenges of reintegrating them
138.Armed Groups in Libya: Typology and RolesMcQuinn B. et.al; Small Arms Survey2012This document (written in mid-2012) provides a basic analysis of armed groups in Libya at that time. It puts forward a basic typology and explores the emerging tension between groups based on tribal. Political and religious affiliations. Although outdated it provides a useful summary of the emergence of the militia and challenges associated with weapons control and management. Link Address
139.Public Attitudes towards the Security and Justice Sectors in LibyaKhalil A N. et.al; Altai Consulting, for Department for International Development (DFID)2013This report explores public attitudes towards security and justice actors in Libya in 2013. It provides a useful example of the detailed exploration of public perceptions towards armed groups and their views on the challenges of dealing with them - including their reintegration into formal structures of disbandment.
140.Joint Guidance Note on Integrated Recovery Planning using Post Conflict Needs Assessments and Transitional Results FrameworksUnited Nations Development Group, World Bank2007Joint Guidance Note covering PCNA and TRF. Useful background for DDR practitioners in terms of their role in wider post conflict stabilisation processes and synergy between DDR and other stabilisation instruments/programmes,
141.The Malian crisis and the challenge of regional security cooperationLacher W. International Journal of Security & Development, 2(2): 18, pp. 1-5, DOI 2013Article explores the origins of the crisis in northern Mali outlining, in particular, regional security dynamics including the role of violent extremism, organised crime and regional flows of armed groups and weapons.
142.Frustrations of Regional Peacekeeping: The OAU in Chad, 1977-1982Amoo G S; the Carter Center1984Historical analysis of the roots of conflict in Chad (pre 1977) and conflict between 1977-1982. Explores role of regional peacekeeping and conflict resolution efforts. No specific reference to DDR but of interest in the light of lessons learned and implications for current peace support operations.
143.Nigeria: In Search of Sustainable Peace in the Niger Delta through the Amnesty ProgrammeOlubayo Oluduro & Olubisi F. Oluduro. Canadian Center of Science and Education, Vol. 5, No.7;2012Paper provides an overview of the Niger Delta conflict - including background on the armed groups and a detailed description of the Amnesty process. DDR efforts (focused largely on BTVET) are described and explored and challenges both with the structural organisation and eligibility and exclusion criteria for benefits provided under the programme are identified. Issues related to TJ and the role of civil society are also discussed.
144.The Post-Amnesty Programme in the Niger Delta: Challenges and Prospects Oluwatoyin O. Oluwaniyi, Conflict Trends Issue 4: 2011 African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD)2011Critique of the Niger Delta Amnesty process - the paper explores the perceived benefits of the programme (including a rise in oil production and fall in kidnappings) as well as challenges associated with eligibility and exclusion criteria and the impact of perceived benefits to militants on other at risk and vulnerable groups including unemployed youth. Interesting commentary on transaction costs associated with the programme in terms of programme management costs vs support to beneficiaries and the role of commanders.
145.The African Union Operations in Comoros-MAES and Operations DemocracySvensson Emma; Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) for the African Union Operations in Comoros 2008Detailed description and analysis of the AU Electoral and Security Assistance Mission to Comoros. Contains detailed background on the origins of conflict - brief mention of DDR responsibilities.
146.Algeria: Current IssuesArieff Alexis; Congressional Research Service (CRS)2013Contains detailed description of historical roots of insurgency in Algeria from independence to emergence of AQIM. Of interest as it details issues related to cross border nature of armed groups and challenges this presents.
147.Priority Plan for Peace Building in the Comoros United Nations Peace Building Fund2008Interesting example of what might be considered a simply articulated Transitional Results Framework for Peacebuilding in the Comoros Context - developed by the Government of the Union des Comores with external support. Highlights proposed DDR interventions within the context of wider stabilisation efforts centered around other risk groups - makes linkages to wider PRSP and sectoral policies.
148.Negotiating Post-war Identities Child Soldiers in Mozambique and AngolaHonwana Alcinda, Contested Terrains and Constructed Categories, Westview Press Colorado2002Useful exploration of issues related to de-scoialisation and initiation strategies employed by insurgent groups amongst children and how in post conflict settings post war identities had to be constructed to enable social reintegration. Includes exploration of the use of traditional systems in Angola and Mozambique.
149.Integrating Mental Health and Psychosocial Interventions into World Bank Lending for Conflict-Affected Populations: A ToolkitBaingana F & Bannon I; World Bank2004Provides useful definitions of mental and psych0-social health and well being and explores empirical data on the extent of issues faced in conflict and post conflict settings including impact at individual and broader level. Highlights ex-combatants as one of several groups of special concern. Provides advice on basic steps required and issues to consider when planning services and interventions.
150.What Happens to Youth During and After Wars?Krijn P et.al; RAWOO2003This useful paper explores in detrail issues related to the impact of dconflict on youth and, conversely, their impact on conflict dynamics. It covers issues related to youth recruitment into armed groups, their descoialisation, and reintegration. Aspects of post- conflict social cohesion are also explored. Case studies from Liberia and Sierra Leone are presented.
151.World Development Report 2011 Security, Conflict and DevelopmentWorld Bank2011This report comprehensively explores the changing nature of violence in the 21st century. The report draws on comparative analysis to explore how countries might successfully manage to transition away from repetitive violence. There is much that will be of interest to DDR Practitioners. Chapter 5 stresses the importance of sequencing DDR and considering its role in the wider political and socioeconomic context and the report overall highlights the importance of regional and multi-sectoral approaches to violence reduction. It includes case examples drawn from a number of African contexts
152.Gender and State Building in Fragile and Conflict Affected StatesOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2013An Overview of key issues challenges and opportunities for integrating Gender perspectives within FCAS programming. There is much in the report that will be of interest to DDR Practitioners - including a description of the importance of understanding the different experiences and perceptions of men and women about violence. A number of case examples are provided from the African Continent (including the involvement of women in Liberia in designing improvements in a DDR programme)
153.Designing Community Driven Development in Fragile and conflict Affected Situations Lessons Lessons from Stock takingRegt J et al; for World Bank2013Summary of a broader stock taking study that was part of an overall an overall effort to develop a toolkit for designing Community Driven Development (CDD) operations in fragile and conflict affected situations.
154.Global Overview 2015, People Internally Displaced by conflict and ViolenceBilak A. et al; Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)2015Looks at causes and impact of forced displacement. Useful background reading
155.Social Development Notes: Preventing and Responding to Sexual Violence in Situations of Fragility and ConflictMakisaka Megumi; for World Bank2011A summary of the issue of sexual and gender based violence in unstable settings, particularly during and after conflict. Includes discussion of the importance of engaging with armed groups when developing prevention strategies.
156.Social Development Notes: Human Trafficking: A Brief OverviewMakisaka Megumi; for World Bank2009An overview of the issues of Human Trafficking. Given the involvement of some armed groups in cross border human traffcking activities likely to be of interest to DDR Practitioners.
157.The Costs of Violence: Review of the evidence Skaperdas S; University of California, for World Bank2009A review of studies and methodological approaches that attempt to estimate the cost of violence and conflict and its impact on development resources
158.Muilt- Country Demobilisation and Reintegration Program: End of Program Evaluation, Final ReportScanteam, for World Bank2010End of project review for this ;athe multi-country DDR programme
159.Social Development Notes: Conlfict Crime and Violence -DDR World Bank2009Brief guide on DDR for Bank staff
160.Behind the ViolenceLomo Z, Hovil L; Refugee Law Project, 20042004A historical overview and analysis of the conflict in Northern Uganda.
161.Eritrea’s Economic Survival: Summary Record of Conference Held on 20 April 2007Royal Institute of International Affairs2007Focuses on the political Economy of Eritrea in the no war-no peace stalemate that prevailed since 1998-2000 conflict with Ethiopia - specific presentation explores issues related to the re-mobilisation of formerly demobilised soldiers and lessons learned from pasdt DDR experiences.
162.Challenges of Peace Implementation in Cote d'IvoireGberie L. and Addo P; Kofi Annan International Peace Training Center (KAIPTC)2004Report on the proceedings of an international experts’ workshop, with, the theme “Challenges of Implementation in Cote d’Ivoire”, held at the Kofi Annan International peace keeping Training Centre, from 31 May to 2nd June 2004. Chapter VI discusses progress with DDR highlighting challenges with programme linkages to politocal committments and processes
163.Ex-pirates in Somalia: Disengagement Processes and Reintegration ProgrammingGjelsvik, I.G. & Bjørgo, T.,Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 13(2), 1-21.2012Provides first hand insights into some of the conditions, circumstances and processes which may serve to discourage involvement and continued engagement in piracy and lessons learned from programming interventions.
164.Regional Security in the post-Cold War Horn of AfricaMesfin B. et al; Institute for Security Studies(ISS)2011Attempts to study the political decision making processes, personalities and historical experiences and to identify issues of intra-state politics and patterns of internal insurgency in the Horn of Africa
165.Veteran combatants do not fade away: a comparative study on two demobilization and reintegration exercises in EritreaMehreteab A; Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)2002Draws on research on Reintegration of ex-refugees and ex-fighters in post conflict Eritrea. Comprehensive analysis of issues and lessons learned from this specific DDR programme
166.Bamako Declaration on an African Common Position on the Illicit Proliferation, Circulation and Trafficking of Small Arms and Light WeaponsAfrican Union2000Policy Framework for the control of SALW
167.The Reintegration of Ex- Combatants in Mozambique Manica and Zambezia Provinces Dolan C & Schafer J; Refugee Studies Programme, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford 1997Report examines the return and subsequent social economic and political reintegration of ex-combatants in both rural and urban settings in Manica and Zambezia provinces
168.Demobilization and Reintegration Arising from Peace Accords: The case of EthiopiaFlorian Fichtl, Ingo Wieferhofr; World BankUnfortunately an electronic copy of this report is not available, but a hard copy is available at the African Union Commssion (AUC) Resource Center. Please contact the adminstrator
169.Civil-Military Relations in ZambiaInstitute for Security Studies (ISS)2004Unfortunately an electronic copy of this report is not available, but a hard copy is available at the African Union Commssion (AUC) Resource Center. Please contact the adminstrator